Bronz timpuriu (Post-Coţofeni)

Copăceni

Chronology: EBA II

Distribution: west Transylvania

Like most early Bronze Age groups we deal with, the Copăceni group was identified and defined only in the last decades (Rotea 1993). It is distributed in west Transylvania, especially at the eastern edge of the Apuseni mountains. The settlements, among them the eponymous place Copăceni – “La Moară” (jud. Cluj), are located preferably at higher locations. The houses, which were built directly on the soil surface, have rectangular ground plans and are constructed using wattle-and-daub (Rotea 1995).

The pottery, according to Rotea, shows on one hand traditions of the Coţofeni culture mixed with Jigodin elements (Rotea 1995, 156), while Ciugudean, on the other hand, stresses the lack of Coţofeni traditions. This is supposed to speak for the younger placement of the group in comparison to the Livezile group which is strongly interspersed with Coţofeni traditions (Ciugudean 1997, 6). The pottery consists of mostly fragmented jugs and cups (for a single wholly preserved vessel, cf. Rotea 1993). Thickened rims and barbotine decoration on the lower half of the vessels are typical. Decoration is rare and consists of rows of little impressions, applied bands and knobs as well as cord impressions (Rotea 1995) which supposedly is due to Coţofeni traditions (Ciugudean 1995, 146). The finds from Cicău – „Sălişte“ (Ciugudean 1997, 6) are attributed to the Copăceni group. Among them, a very strange vessel decorated with clay buttons was found (ibid. 34 Nr. 52). If the chronological placement is correct, it would be the earliest evidence for this type of decoration (Băjenaru 1996).

The chronological placement of the group is still being discussed, which is due to the imprecise separation of Copăceni and Livezile. Both groups are namely defined partly with the same locations (e. g. Ampoiţa or Tureni). Ciugudean combined both in 1995 to form a west Transylvanian tumulus group with two phases (Ciugudean 1995), but later he separated them again (Ciugudean 1997 and 1998). According to him, the Copăceni group is in any case younger than Livezile while Rotea does not mention the Livezile group in any of this articles dealing with Copăceni. He dates Copăceni to the early Bronze Age II according to Roman (Rotea 1993). In terms of stratigraphy, only the placement between Coţofeni and Wietenberg is certain (Rotea 1995, 157). An internal classification is lacking completely, even though the eponymous settlement is said to consist of four layers of the Copăceni group (Rotea/Wittenberger 1998, 19).

Connected to the problem of the relations between Livezile and Copăceni is the question of the treatment of the dead. The tumulus cemetery of Ampoiţa mentioned by Rotea is attributed to the Livezile group by Ciugudean (Ciugudean 1997, 5f.). So the only remaining certain burial of the Copăceni group is the grave of five individals (one adult, four children) from a pit in the settlement „La Moară“ (Rotea/Wittenberger 1998).


© 2007-2009 Matthias Thomas
translated by Valeska Becker
How to copy texts: Impressum.

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