Bronz timpuriu (Post-Coţofeni)

Jigodin

Chronology: EBA II

Distribution: east Transylvania

The Jigodin group was defined already in 1973 and therefore belongs to the oldest groups we deal with in terms of the history of research (Roman/Iános/Horváth 1973). Its remains can be found in the Ciuc lowland in east Transylvania. The best researched location of the eleven sites known at the time of the group’s definition is Leliceni – „Muntele cu piatră“. Here, a settlement comprising of three layers with houses built directly on the surface was excavated (Roman/Dodd-Opitreşcu/János 1992). Hill settlements are typical for the Jigodin group. Only a single grave is known: it is a cremation in an urn found in Brăduţ; the urn was placed in a stone crate and afterwards, a tumulus was constructed above it (Ciugudean 1995, 144f.).

The pottery with its vessel shapes (jugs, askoi, bowls with a funnel-shaped rim) and its decoration (tight incised lines) clearly resembles Schneckenberg B (resp. Năeni). The main characteristic, however, is a large amount of pottery decorated with cord impressions. This amount is larger than in any other cultural group of the early Bronze Age. Furthermore, applied ornaments can be found, as it is common in this time. If we were to regard the compilation of mostly triangular and partly encrusted cord impressions (Bertemes 1998, 196 fig. 2), we would rather be reminded of vessels from the Makó and Nyírség cultures than from the other early Bronze Age cultures of Transylvania. Also, we have to mention similarities to the Runcuri pottery of the Glina group which are even interpreted as a Jigodin influence (Băjenaru 2003a). It is noteworthy that we also find vessels with two handles (Roman/Iános/Horváth 1973, pl. 3,1). They are missing in Transylvania before the Ciomortan group but do occur in Wallachia in the Glina or Odaia Turcului groups.

Typical find material consists of stone curved knives, axes and flint arrow heads with a concave base. Important are also molds for making Dumbrăvioara axes and daggers with a middle ridge found in Leliceni.

In terms of chronology the group can be dated to the early Bronze Age II (Roman 1986; Székely 1997, 107; Ciugudean 1998). F. Bertemes who critically summarizes the history of research writes that a synchronization with Makó would be “very likely in terms of genesis and typology” (Bertemes 1998, 199). He stresses the similarities to the cultures of the Tisza regions and regards Jigodin as the expression of a Schneckenberg-Glina III expansion to Transylvania where a fusion with late Vučedol-elements coming from the south-west (ibid. 203) occured. The state of research, however, is still not good enough to place the Jigodin group judiciously in the difficult inter-regional network of cultures using cord-impression decorated pottery.


© 2007-2009 Matthias Thomas
translated by Valeska Becker
How to copy texts: Impressum.

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