Bronz timpuriu (Post-Coţofeni)

Şoimuş

Chronology: EBA II

Distribution: south-west Transylvania

The Şoimuş group was defined by I. Andriţoiu. It is located south of the Apuseni mountains. The only places attributed to this group are ten hill settlements, among them the eponymous spot Şoimuş – “Cuculau” (Andriţoiu 1995). Up to today no graves were found, but maybe some of the tumuli occurring in this region can be attributed to it (Ciugudean 1997, 7).

The find material of the Şoimuş group largely consists of pottery, mostly fragmented. The few wholly preserved vessels are miniature forms. The pottery can be divided into coarse and fine wares. Regarding shapes, most pottery fragments belong to large, beaker-like storage vessels and bowls. Decoration is sparse; all we find are applied bands, partly decorated with impressions and imprints, and knobs arranged to rectangular motifs. Typical elements of the pottery are also tunnel-shaped lugs and rims with a T-shaped profile. One little fragment decorated with triangular impressions is connected to the second phase of the Nir culture (Sanislău).

Other finds are rare and many types are represented only with single finds. However, the typical early Bronze Age repertoire consisting of spindle whorls, wheel models, zoomorphic figurines, stone curved knives and arrow heads with a concave base can be found. From Ţebea, we also know a wheel model (Schuster 1996, 117). However, there are no metal finds that can be attributed with certainty.

Archaeozoological research conducted in Şoimuş and Ţebea showed that not a single bone from game was found and that cattle bones amount to large percentages (83 %). However, the data base for the analyses was small, therefore, the results cannot be transferred to other locations (Andriţoiu 1989, table 1).

In terms of chronology, the placement of the group is still discussed among the two leading researchers I. Andriţoiu und H. Ciugudean. I. Andriţoiu thinks that the Şoimuş group follows directly after the Coţofeni culture, because of three vertical stratigraphies found in Ţebea, Şoimuş – “Cuculau” and Almaş Sălişte – “În Săcări”. He also derives the decoration and the vessel shapes from Coţofeni. The tumuli (i. e. Livezile) and Copăceni are placed after Coţofeni according to him, and he deems likely a combination of these groups to one big cultural complex (Andriţoiu 1995, 237). On the opposite, Ciugudean thinks that the Şoimuş group succeeds Livezile and Copăceni and is succeeded likewise by the Iernut group of the Besenstrich horizon. He believes that two phases can be found and compares the find material with Spätschneckenberg, Jigodin, Nagyrév, Somogyvár, Sanislău and Mureş (Ciugudean 1998). Another vertical stratigraphy that proves that the Şoimuş group is younger than Coţofeni can be found in Deva – “Magna Curia”, where the Şoimuş layer is in addition superimposed by Wietenberg. In terms of chronology the author follows Ciugudean: like him, she thinks there must be an older phase within the Şoimuş group since the material from Deva resembles the [livezile_english_version|Livezile]] group (Rişcuta 1998). However, all authors are united in their opinion that the group can be dated to the early Bronze Age II. Only Cr. Popa, normally consenting with Ciugudean, dates the end of the group to the early third phase of the early Bronze Age (Popa 1998, 85).


© 2007-2009 Matthias Thomas
translated by Valeska Becker
How to copy texts: Impressum.

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