Bronz timpuriu (Post-Coţofeni)


Chronology: EBA I

Distribution: south-east Transylvania

The Zăbala group is verified only by one single settlement. It was defined after excavations in 1969-1970 at the eponymous place Zăbala – “Movilă Tătarilor”. Here, the only grave assignable to the group was found: a burial of an individual lying on the left side in a crouched position, covered with ochre (Székely 1997, pl. 88). There are no stratigraphic observations, and apart from a reconstructed amphora there is only one wholly preserved vessel: an undecorated miniature vessel (Székely 1997, pl. 27,5). All other pottery is fragmented (Székely 1997, 27). The finely polished vessels are decorated with knobs, impressions, zigzag lines, applied bands and cord impressions. Tunnel-shaped lugs are also typical. Together with some single clay and bone objects, among them a mould, we also find miniature clay axes and zoomorphic figurines. Of the latter figurines five examples are known, so they almost represent the most common type in the find material (ibid., pl. 29). The clay axes as well as the zoomorphic figurines can be used when we compare the Zăbala group with any other group or culture of the Carpathian early Bronze Age.

In terms of chronology the group can be dated to the beginning of the Bronze Age where it terminates the development of the Coţofeni culture early on in south-east Transylvania. It is said to represent southern influences, together with Zimnicea-Mlăjet-Sânzieni-Turia type finds. However, these finds precede the Zăbala group and are its origin (Székely 1998 und 2002). Lately researchers point to a connection between the Zăbala group and the Globular Amphorae culture whose existence in Transylvania is supposedly proved by a grave found in Sânmartin-Ciuc (ibid.). Zăbala is also compared with Coţofeni, Livezile, Glina and Schneckenberg, but also with Cernavodă II, Horodiştea-Folteşti-II and the finds from Căţelu Nou. It is said to have played a role in the genesis of the Schneckenberg group and the Monteoru culture. It succeeds the Coţofeni I culture which can therefore develop further to Coţofeni II and III only in its western regions (Székely 1997, 106; 2002). Therefore, it is contemporaneous with Coţofeni II and early Glina in Wallachia (Schuster 1998, 26).

© 2007-2009 Matthias Thomas
translated by Valeska Becker
How to copy texts: Impressum.

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